Thursday, March 19, 2020

HCA333 M7 Lecture Notes Essays

HCA333 M7 Lecture Notes Essays HCA333 M7 Lecture Notes Essays HCA333 Mod 7 Lecture Notes We will examine two cases this module. In Trunkl v. Regents of University of California, Hugo Trunkl filed a case of alleged negligence in hopes of recovering damages for a resulting personal injury. The case was brought against the University of California Los Angeles Medical Center, a hospital operated and maintained by the Regents of the University of California as a nonprofit charitable institution. Following Hugo Trunkl’s death, the case was carried on by his surviving wife. The old rule in the United States gave charitable or religious hospitals complete immunity to suits of negligence. Further, any other two parties could normally agree to waive negligence of another in a medical setting. In the new rule, as set forth by California, states that, â€Å"All contracts which have for their object, directly or indirectly to exempt anyone from responsibility for his own fraud, or willful injury to the person or property of another, or violation of law, whether willful or negligent, are against the policy of the law.† In other words, the charitable hospitals los t all of their immunity. The court held that patient-hospital contracts fall within all contracts affecting public interest. If the interest is a public interest, the negligence can never be waived. It was determined that the admission room in the hospital is not a bargaining table, therefore the hospital insisting the patient accept the waiver provisions in the contract gained an unfair advantage over the patient who was in no position to reject the proffered agreement. In Shorter v. Drury, the case is an appeal for the wrongful death medical malpractice of the bleeding death of patient who refused blood transfusions for religious reasons. Doreen Shorter, a Jehovah Witness was prohibited by her religion to receive blood transfusions. Mrs. Shorter was pregnant and had a â€Å"missed abortion† meaning the fetus had died and the uterus failed to discharge it. It is medically prudent to evacuate the uterus to guard against infection in such a case. A â€Å"dilation and curettage†, a D and C, was recommended to evacuate the uterus. There are three primary methods for conducting a D and C. Dr. Drury chose the method that often

Monday, March 2, 2020

Contingency - The Relationship Between Behavior and Reinforcement

Contingency - The Relationship Between Behavior and Reinforcement Definition: Contingency is the relationship between two events, one being contingent or a consequence of the other event. Behaviorism (ABA) sees all behavior as a response to an antecedent and driven by the consequences. All behaviors have a consequence, even if that relationship is not very clear either to the observer or the student who may be the focus of an intervention, either behavioral or instructional. The goal of an Applied Behavior Analysis intervention is to change behavior. It may be to increase the desired behavior, to replace a problematic behavior or to extinguish a dangerous or difficult behavior. In order to increase the desired behavior, the student needs to know that receiving reinforcement is directly related to the behavior, or contingent on the behavior. This relationship of contingency is incredibly important to the success of an Applied Behavior Analysis program. The success of establishing contingency requires quick reinforcement, clear communication, and consistency. Students who dont receive immediate reinforcement, or are not clear about the relationship of contingency, will not be as successful as those children who clearly understand the relationship or contingency. Examples: It took a while for the team at Jonathons school to help him understand the contingency between his behavior and receiving reinforcement, so they repeated a simple imitation program with direct, one to one reinforcement until he would comply regularly.

Saturday, February 15, 2020

Importance of displacement, migrations and the perceived lack or flux Essay

Importance of displacement, migrations and the perceived lack or flux of geo-political boundaries to contemporary art - Essay Example The essay "Importance of displacement, migrations and the perceived lack or flux of geo-political boundaries to contemporary art" discovers how artists through their artworks have tried to bring out the idea that migration, exile and displacement that are matters as a result of political and social changes, which have generated the wider world of modernity. Displacement comprises of one of the main parameters in our cultural development currently, and constitutes desired geopolitical characteristics of the present life. Art has taken advantage of displacement in countries that are not economically and politically stable. Levi and Scheding are of the opinion that â€Å"maybe the only generalization possible is that displacement must be understood as a complex and heterogeneous mass phenomenon.† Displacements of artist have a wide context in which they affect the artists. Rather than subjecting the artists into a new physical environment, there are more situations playing behind . Levi and Scheding term them as the social, cultural and historic contexts. Artistic displacement has faced a series of events in it which include the movement of images, goods, information and people. These subject contemporary artists to a wide range of concepts. Many have tried to understand the essence behind displacement and contemporary artists. Tactfully, many artists would find opportunity to show case their ability, and therefore need to relocate to desired places. In other cases, nature and political stands come on the way.

Sunday, February 2, 2020

The Ethical Significance of Consumerism Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

The Ethical Significance of Consumerism - Essay Example This research will begin with the definition of consumerism as a negative phenomenon because it involves the purchase of various items and products in very large quantities. Consumerism is often understood as a kind of manic enthusiasm for shopping. This concern is amplified by the fact that â€Å"consumerism appears to be becoming increasingly global in its influence†. Despite the opinion that consumerism is a negative phenomenon (it increases man's dependence on the service sector making him/her earn more), one can point out several arguments in favor of the idea that in ethical terms, consumerism is good. Firstly, one should remember that consumerism is able to bring psychological satisfaction for a shopaholic, making his/her inner condition calm and balanced. In addition, consumerism may be presented in the form of ethical consumerism. Finally, participating in the economic development of the region, consumerism helps to create more favorable conditions of life for many pe ople. Consumerism has ethical significance in the sense that it can help to stabilize relations between people. There are people who need to perform actions that can bring them pleasure and at the same time contribute to the stabilization of their psychological state. As a result, a shopaholic relieves his/her psychological tension and stress and can continue communicating with his/her friends and family in a peaceful state of mind. In addition, consumerism can be presented in the form of ethical consumerism.

Saturday, January 25, 2020

Okonkwo Essay -- essays research papers

Okonkwo Tragic Hero Essay   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Slowly the men make their way up the hill with Obierika in the lead. Leaves crunch as feet uniformly step onto the ground. The commissioner and his soldiers are warily eyeing their surroundings. Each man snuggles close to Okonkwo’s compound wall, hoping not to be seen. They go past a small bush. It is next to a red hole in the wall where small animals enter and exit the compound. Finally, the men all stop. They spot the body dangling from a tree. They stand upright in shock. The carcass of Okonkwo steadily swings in the breeze. As each man looks upon it disbelievingly, Obierika says to the commissioner heatedly, â€Å"That man was one of the greatest men in Umuofia. You drove him to kill himself, and now he will be buried like a dog†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (page 207). In Things Fall Apart by Chinua Achebe, the main character of Okonkwo displays many different aspects of his personality that lead to this moment. Even though Okonkwo is in a society that forbids suicid e, for many reasons he chooses to end his life this way. Thus, Okonkwo becomes a tragic hero, and at the end of the book, he takes his own life to end his pain.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Two of the characteristics of a tragic hero are that the person is of high birth and his actions affect the nation. â€Å"Unoka, for that was his father’s name, had died ten years ago. In his day he was lazy and improvident and was quite incapable of thinking about tomorrow† (page 4). High birth can be a miracle or a curse, high birth comes with the ability to achieve the impossible and this is Okonkwo’s focus in life. Unoka to Okonkwo is a failure and he strives to be the exact opposite of his father and make a name for himself apart from his fathers. â€Å"Unoka loved it all, and he loved the first kites that returned with the dry season, and the children who sang songs of welcome to them† (page 5). The happiness that Unoka enjoys is not the result of high birth it is because of his love for the simple moments in life and the music that flows around it. Okonkwo does not enjoy life and all it has to offer and ultimately he will not obt ain victory. â€Å"As he broke the kola, Unoka prayed to their ancestors for life and health, and for protection against their enemies† (page 6). Prayer is ultimately the most important aspect of Unoka’s life, even though he is not of high birth, and as he bes... ... much. Overall, his error is in the way he treats his family and how he can not lean back on them in his time of need. â€Å"Take down the body† (page 208). Okonkwo commits many errors within his life and pays for it in the most sinful way, suicide. He dies as a result of the white man’s invasion as well as other affairs that are symbolic to his life. â€Å"His body is evil, and only strangers may touch it† (page 207). The body of a dead person in Umuofian culture is evil and it is unholy for a friend to touch it, for that reason a stranger must touch Okonkwo. Okonkwo’s body is not only evil from death but it is evil from his personality and soul.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Thus, Okonkwo becomes a tragic hero, and at the end of the book, he takes his own life to end his pain. Okonkwo a man in disguise is a victim of wrong choices in life and dies for it as a noble purpose. Okonkwo is a human being and with that comes the result in fatal flaws that result in his downfall. High birth is not of Okonkwo’s back ground, but ultimately his actions affect Umuofia in more ways than he could ever understand. Okonkwo not only is a tragic hero, he is also a victim of his own fate and destiny.

Friday, January 17, 2020

How Effective Was Victorian Policing?

When police forced were first set up in the early nineteenth century, they were very unpopular. This was due to the fact the police were criticised for violent and drunken behaviour. Furthermore such as the cost of running the police force and the public feared them as a threat to their personal and political freedom. For example, the police didn’t solve any crime â€Å"the lack of protection† and mainly many places did not have a police force until 1856, which meant that there was no point having them because it contrasted greatly with the population.One point historians find that Victorian policing was a failure is that most of the time the police spent clearing drunks and beggars off the street, and not solving serious crime, such as only four numbers of arrests were made in 16 years. Late Victorian England is described by some historians as a ‘golden age’ of policing because of the amount of public trust and approval.There were reforms which meant that there were less drunkenness in the force and the public approved the police were seen more as a friend than threat. Also the people thought it seemed worth it to run the police force. This was because the police force was starting to realise their mistake and learned from it. There was an increase in the number of arrest the police made and the crime rate began to steadily fall.Furthermore they started to gather evidence from the public and made prosecutions, which suggests the police were taking action and tried to solve crimes. In addition there were new technologies-this system was to classify information more efficiently. But historians also ask whether this really was a ‘golden’ age. For example the Bertillon system was difficult to use, therefore there was no much point to use them; unless a witness could give detailed descriptions of the criminal.One major point that proves the Victorian policing was a failure is in the nineteenth century police officers werenâ⠂¬â„¢t trained enough. Overall, to some extent the Victorian policing were effective in that they learnt from their mistakes and kept improving, but to some extent it wasn’t effect in preventing criminals effectively or solving crimes. However in my opinion the Victorian policing were effective in the way that if the mistakes weren’t made, we’d be faced with the same problems now.